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Wine Education

Making Wine

Making Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.

Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (i.e., sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.



Wine Bottle Sizes/Designations

Wine Bottle Sizes/Designations


The chart below expresses the sizes of various wine bottles in multiples relating to a standard bottle of wine, which is 0.75 litres (750ml.) (0.1981 U.S. gal; 0.1650 imp gal) .

Bottle Name Name's Origin Champagne Bordeaux Burgundy Volume
in Litres
Equivalent standard bottles
Piccoloa "Small" in Italian ¼ n/a n/a 0.1875
Chopine Traditional French unit of volume n/a n/a 0.250
Demib "Half" in French ½ ½ ½ 0.375
Jenniec "White Spirit" in Welsh n/a n/a n/a 0.5
Clavelind   n/a n/a n/a 0.620
Standard   1 1 1 0.750
Fifthe One-fifth of a U.S. gallon n/a n/a n/a 0.757
Magnum   2 2 2 1.5
Marie Jeannef   n/a 3 n/a 2.25
Double Magnum   4 4 n/a 3.0
Jeroboamg Biblical, First king of Northern Kingdom 4 6 4 3.0/4.5
Franzia The Wine Group n/a n/a n/a 5.0
Rehoboam Biblical, First king of separate Judea 6 n/a 6 4.5
Imperial   n/a 8 n/a 6.0
Methuselah Biblical, Oldest Man 8 n/a 8 6.0
Mordechai Biblical, Jewish uncle of Esther Queen of Persia 12 n/a 12 9.0
Salmanazar Biblical, Assyrian King 12 n/a 12 9.0
Balthazar Early Christian folklore, one of the Wise Men 16 16 16 12.0
Nebuchadnezzar Biblical, King of Babylon 20 20 20 15.0
Melchior Early Christian folklore, one of the Wise Men 24 24 24 18.0
Solomon Biblical, King of Israel, Son of David 26⅔ n/a n/a 20.0
Sovereign   33⅓ n/a n/a 25.0
Primat   36 n/a n/a 27.0
Melchizedek Biblical and other middle-east religions 40 n/a n/a 30.0

a Also known as a quarter bottle, pony, snipe or split.
b Also known as a half bottle or split.
c Also known as a 50 cl bottle. Used for Tokaj, Sauternes, Jerez, as well as several other types of sweet wines.
d Primarily used for vin jaune.
e For many years, the U.S. standard (non-metric) wine and liquor bottle was the "fifth", meaning one-fifth of a U.S. gallon, or 25.6 U.S. fluid ounces (757.1 ml; 26.65 imp fl oz) . Some beverages also came in half-gallon and one-gallon sizes. disp=or In 1979, the U.S. adopted the metric system for wine bottles, with the basic bottle becoming 75 cl, as in Europe.
f Also known as a Tregnum or Tappit Hen in the port wine trade.
g Jeroboam has different meanings for different regions in France.



Standard Racks Bottle Width
Split (375ml): 2 3/8 "

Bordeaux: 2 7/8 "

750ml Boutique: 3 1/8 "

Small Champagne: 3 3/16"

Burgundy: 3 1/4"

Large Pinot: 3 3/8"

Magnum Racks  

Large Champagne: 3 7/8"

Magnum (1.5L): 4"



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